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Termites are known to carry pollen and frequently see flowers,177 so are considered as potential pollinators for a number of flowering plants.178 One blossom in particular, Rhizanthella gardneri, is frequently pollinated by foraging workers, and it's perhaps the only Orchidaceae flower in the world to be pollinated by termites.177
Many plants have grown powerful defences against termites. But, seedlings are vulnerable to termite attacks and need additional protection, as their defence mechanisms only develop when they have passed the seedling stage.179 Defence is normally accomplished by secreting antifeedant compounds into the woody cell walls.180 This lowers the ability of termites to efficiently digest the cellulose.
When retained near the extract, they become disoriented and eventually perish.181.
Termite populations can be substantially impacted by environmental changes including those caused by human intervention. A Brazilian study investigated the termite assemblages of 3 websites of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic disturbance in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil were sampled using 65 x 2 m transects.182 A total of 26 species of termites had been present in the 3 websites, and 196 encounters were listed in the transects.
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The wood-feeders were the most severely affected feeding group. .
A termite nest can be considered as being composed of two components, both the inanimate and the animate. The animate is all the termites living inside the colony, and the inanimate part is that the construction itself, which can be constructed by the termites. Nests can be broadly divided into three main classes: subterranean (entirely below ground), epigeal (protruding above the soil surface), and arboreal (built above ground, but constantly connected to the ground via shelter tubes).184 Epigeal nests (mounds) protrude from the ground with ground contact and are created out of ground and mud.
Most termites construct underground colonies rather than multifunctional nests and mounds.186 Primitive termites of today nest in wooden structures such as logs, stumps and the dead portions of trees, as did termites millions of years ago.184.
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To construct their nests, termites primarily utilize faeces, which have many desirable properties as a construction material. Other building materials include partly digested plant material, used in carton nests (arboreal nests built from faecal elements and timber ), and dirt, utilized in subterranean nest and mound construction. Not many nests are observable, as many nests in tropical woods are situated underground.186 Species in the subfamily Apicotermitinae are good examples of subterranean nest builders, as they only reside inside tunnels.
Nests and mounds check my site protect the termites' soft bodies against desiccation, light, pathogens and parasites, in addition to providing a fortification against predators.188Nests made out of carton are especially weak, and so the inhabitants utilize counter-attack strategies against invading predators. .
Arboreal carton nests of mangrove swamp-dwelling Nasutitermes are enriched in lignin and depleted in cellulose and xylans. This change results from bacterial decay in the intestine of their termites: they use their faeces as a carton building substance. Arboreal termites nests can account for as much as 2% of above ground carbon monoxide in Puerto Rican mangrove swamps.
Some species build complex nests called polycalic nests; this habitat is known as polycalism. Polycalic species of termites sort multiple nests, or calies, connected with subterranean chambers.107 The termite genera Apicotermes and Trinervitermes are known to have polycalic species.191 Polycalic nests seem to be frequent in mound-building species although polycalic arboreal nests have been found in a few species of Nasutitermes.191.
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Nests are considered mounds should they protrude from the earth's surface. A mound provides termites the exact same protection as a nest but is stronger.189 Mounds located in areas with torrential and continuous rainfall are in danger of mound erosion due to their clay-rich construction. Those made from carton can offer protection against the rain, and in fact can withstand high precipitation.
For example, Cubitermes colonies construct narrow tunnels utilized as strong points, since the width of the tunnels is small enough for troops to obstruct.192 A highly secure chamber, known as the"queens mobile", houses the queen and king and is used as a final line of defence. .
Species in the genus Macrotermes arguably construct the most complex structures in the insect world, constructing enormous mounds. These mounds are among the largest in the world, reaching a height of 8 to 9 metres (26 to 29 ft ), and consist of chimneys, pinnacles and ridges.56 Another termite species, Amitermes meridionalis, can build nests 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 ft ) high and 2.5 metres (8 ft ) wide.
The sculptured mounds occasionally have fancy and distinctive forms, like the ones of the compass termite (Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis), which builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds using the long axis oriented approximately northsouth, which gives them their common name.194195 This orientation has been experimentally shown to help thermoregulation. The north-south orientation causes the internal temperature of a mound to increase rapidly during the morning while avoiding overheating from the midday sun.